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Disease Profile

Congenital dyserythropoietic anemia

Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.

1-9 / 1 000 000

US Estimated

Europe Estimated

Age of onset






Autosomal dominant A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease.


Autosomal recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype.


dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.


recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder.


Mitochondrial or multigenic Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.

Multigenic or multifactor Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.


Not applicable


Other names (AKA)

Dyserythropoietic anemia, congenital


Congenital dyserythropoietic anemia is a hereditary disease that affects the production of red blood cells (erythropoiesis) and is characterized by anemia and problems in various organs. The signs and symptoms may include fatigue, weakness, pale skin, yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice), larger-than-normal liver and spleen (hepatosplenomegaly), and problems of the heart.[1]

There are four major types of the condition. Each type has a different cause and the additional signs and symptoms mentioned below:[2] 

  • Type 1: Characterized by moderate to severe anemia; jaundice; hepatosplenomegaly; and iron overload, which can lead to heart problems, liver disease (cirrhosis), and diabetes. Some people are born with skeletal defects of the fingers and/or toes. In some cases, the disease can be detected before birth as a hydrops fetalis. It is usually caused by changes (mutations) in the CDAN1 and C15orf41(less frequently) genes
  • Type 2: Characterized by hepatosplenomegaly, gallbladder stones, and a milder form of anemia. After 20 years of age, some affected people develop iron overload. It is caused by mutations in the SEC23B gene 
  • Type 3: The rarest form of the types. The liver is unaffected, but eye and blood problems (monoclonal gammopathy) are present. The exact cause of this type is currently unknown but it likely results from mutations in a gene located on the long arm of chromosome 15 at a position designated 15q22.
  • Type 4: Characterized by very severe anemia. It is caused by mutations in the KLF1 gene. 

Types 1 and 2 are inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Type 3 appears to be inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. Type 4 is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. Treatment may involve the use of a medication called interferon, and a bone marrow transplant.[1]


Support and advocacy groups can help you connect with other patients and families, and they can provide valuable services. Many develop patient-centered information and are the driving force behind research for better treatments and possible cures. They can direct you to research, resources, and services. Many organizations also have experts who serve as medical advisors or provide lists of doctors/clinics. Visit the group’s website or contact them to learn about the services they offer. Inclusion on this list is not an endorsement by GARD.

Organizations Supporting this Disease

    Learn more

    These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.

    Where to Start

    • Genetics Home Reference (GHR) contains information on Congenital dyserythropoietic anemia. This website is maintained by the National Library of Medicine.

      In-Depth Information

      • The Monarch Initiative brings together data about this condition from humans and other species to help physicians and biomedical researchers. Monarch’s tools are designed to make it easier to compare the signs and symptoms (phenotypes) of different diseases and discover common features. This initiative is a collaboration between several academic institutions across the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. Visit the website to explore the biology of this condition.
      • Orphanet is a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Access to this database is free of charge.


        1. Congenital dyserythropoietic anemia. Genetics Home Reference (GHR). July 2009; https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/congenital-dyserythropoietic-anemia.
        2. Tamary H & Dgany O. Congenital Dyserythropoietic Anemia Type I. GeneReviews. August 25, 2016; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK5313/#cda1.Management.