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Disease Profile

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis

Prevalence
Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.

Unknown

Age of onset

#N/A

ICD-10

#N/A

Inheritance

Autosomal dominant A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease

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Autosomal recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype

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X-linked
dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.

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X-linked
recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder

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Mitochondrial or multigenic Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.

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Multigenic or multifactor Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.

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Not applicable

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Other names (AKA)

Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis; Arthritis, juvenile rheumatoid; Juvenile chronic arthritis;

Summary

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is an autoimmune condition that causes pain and swelling in a child's joints. When the immune system attacks the tissues of the joints, the resulting inflammation can cause joint damage, resulting in the pain and swelling characteristic of the disease. Some children who have juvenile idiopathic arthritis are affected by episodes where the symptoms worsen, called flares. Like most other autoimmune conditions, juvenile idiopathic arthritis is caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. To be diagnosed with juvenile idiopathic arthritis, the symptoms must have begun before age 16. Diagnosis of the condition may be based on blood tests, X-rays, and ruling out other similar conditions. Treatment options may include medications and  physical therapy.[1]

Symptoms

This table lists symptoms that people with this disease may have. For most diseases, symptoms will vary from person to person. People with the same disease may not have all the symptoms listed. This information comes from a database called the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) . The HPO collects information on symptoms that have been described in medical resources. The HPO is updated regularly. Use the HPO ID to access more in-depth information about a symptom.

Medical Terms Other Names
Learn More:
HPO ID
80%-99% of people have these symptoms
Arthralgia
Joint pain
0002829
Arthritis
Joint inflammation
0001369
Autoimmunity
Autoimmune disease
Autoimmune disorder

[ more ]

0002960
Fever
0001945
30%-79% of people have these symptoms
Abdominal pain
Pain in stomach
Stomach pain

[ more ]

0002027
Abnormal fingernail morphology
Abnormal fingernails
Abnormality of the fingernails

[ more ]

0001231
Abnormal pleura morphology
0002103
Abnormality of the sacroiliac joint
0100781
Cartilage destruction
0100773
Generalized hyperkeratosis
0005595
Joint dislocation
Joint dislocations
Recurrent joint dislocations

[ more ]

0001373
Joint stiffness
Stiff joint
Stiff joints

[ more ]

0001387
Joint swelling
0001386
Malabsorption
Intestinal malabsorption
0002024
Mediastinal lymphadenopathy
Swollen lymph nodes in center of chest
0100721
Nail pits
Nail pitting
Pitted nails

[ more ]

0001803
Psoriasiform dermatitis
0003765
Skin rash
0000988
Uveitis
0000554
5%-29% of people have these symptoms
Hepatomegaly
Enlarged liver
0002240
Pericardial effusion
Fluid around heart
0001698
Splenomegaly
Increased spleen size
0001744

Treatment

FDA-Approved Treatments

The medication(s) listed below have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as orphan products for treatment of this condition. Learn more orphan products.

Organizations

Support and advocacy groups can help you connect with other patients and families, and they can provide valuable services. Many develop patient-centered information and are the driving force behind research for better treatments and possible cures. They can direct you to research, resources, and services. Many organizations also have experts who serve as medical advisors or provide lists of doctors/clinics. Visit the group’s website or contact them to learn about the services they offer. Inclusion on this list is not an endorsement by GARD.

Organizations Supporting this Disease

    Organizations Providing General Support

      Learn more

      These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.

      Where to Start

      • MedlinePlus was designed by the National Library of Medicine to help you research your health questions, and it provides more information about this topic.
      • Genetics Home Reference (GHR) contains information on Juvenile idiopathic arthritis. This website is maintained by the National Library of Medicine.
      • The National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS) support research into the causes, treatment, and prevention of arthritis and musculoskeletal and skin diseases, the training of basic and clinical scientists to carry out this research, and the dissemination of information on research progress in these diseases. Click on the link to view information on this topic.

        In-Depth Information

        • Orphanet is a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Access to this database is free of charge.
        • PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.

          References

          1. Questions and Answers about Juvenile Arthritis. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases; June 2015; https://www.niams.nih.gov/Health_info/Juv_Arthritis/.