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Disease Profile

Histidinemia

Prevalence
Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.
1-9 / 100 000

3,310 - 29,790

US Estimated

1-9 / 100 000

5,135 - 46,215

Europe Estimated

Age of onset

Infancy

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ICD-10

E70.8

Inheritance

Autosomal dominant A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease

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Autosomal recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype

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X-linked
dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.

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X-linked
recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder

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Mitochondrial or multigenic Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.

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Multigenic or multifactor Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.

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Not applicable

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Other names (AKA)

Histidase deficiency; HIS deficiency; HAL deficiency;

Categories

Congenital and Genetic Diseases; Metabolic disorders

Summary

Histidinemia is an inherited metabolic condition characterized by elevated levels of the amino acid histidine in blood, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid. In most cases, people with this condition have no health problems and may not even know that they are affected. Individuals with histidinemia who also experience a medical complication during or shortly after birth (such as a temporary lack of oxygen), may be at an increased risk of developing intellectual disability, behavioral problems, or learning disabilities.[1][2][3]

Histidinemia is caused by changes (mutations) in the HAL gene. This gene provides instructions for making an enzyme called histidase, which breaks down histidine into a molecule called urocanic acid. If histidase doesn't do its job properly, histidine levels become elevated.[1] Histidinemia is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern.[1][2][3] Because there are no symptoms associated with this condition, treatment is not necessary.[2][3]

Symptoms

This table lists symptoms that people with this disease may have. For most diseases, symptoms will vary from person to person. People with the same disease may not have all the symptoms listed. This information comes from a database called the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) . The HPO collects information on symptoms that have been described in medical resources. The HPO is updated regularly. Use the HPO ID to access more in-depth information about a symptom.

Medical Terms Other Names
Learn More:
HPO ID
100% of people have these symptoms
Histidinuria
High urine histidine levels
0002927
Hyperhistidinemia
High blood histidine level
0010906
5%-29% of people have these symptoms
Behavioral abnormality
Behavioral changes
Behavioral disorders
Behavioral disturbances
Behavioral problems
Behavioral/psychiatric abnormalities
Behavioural/Psychiatric abnormality
Psychiatric disorders
Psychiatric disturbances

[ more ]

0000708
Neurological speech impairment
Speech impediment
Speech impairment
Speech disorder

[ more ]

0002167
1%-4% of people have these symptoms
Hyperactivity
More active than typical
0000752
Intellectual disability
Mental deficiency
Mental retardation
Mental retardation, nonspecific
Mental-retardation

[ more ]

0001249
Moderate global developmental delay
0011343
Specific learning disability
0001328
Percent of people who have these symptoms is not available through HPO
Autosomal dominant inheritance
0000006
Autosomal recessive inheritance
0000007

Diagnosis

Making a diagnosis for a genetic or rare disease can often be challenging. Healthcare professionals typically look at a person’s medical history, symptoms, physical exam, and laboratory test results in order to make a diagnosis. The following resources provide information relating to diagnosis and testing for this condition. If you have questions about getting a diagnosis, you should contact a healthcare professional.

Testing Resources

  • The Genetic Testing Registry (GTR) provides information about the genetic tests for this condition. The intended audience for the GTR is health care providers and researchers. Patients and consumers with specific questions about a genetic test should contact a health care provider or a genetics professional.

Newborn Screening

  • The Newborn Screening Coding and Terminology Guide has information on the standard codes used for newborn screening tests. Using these standards helps compare data across different laboratories. This resource was created by the National Library of Medicine.

Learn more

These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.

Where to Start

  • Genetics Home Reference (GHR) contains information on Histidinemia. This website is maintained by the National Library of Medicine.
  • The National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) has a report for patients and families about this condition. NORD is a patient advocacy organization for individuals with rare diseases and the organizations that serve them.

In-Depth Information

  • The Monarch Initiative brings together data about this condition from humans and other species to help physicians and biomedical researchers. Monarch’s tools are designed to make it easier to compare the signs and symptoms (phenotypes) of different diseases and discover common features. This initiative is a collaboration between several academic institutions across the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. Visit the website to explore the biology of this condition.
  • Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) is a catalog of human genes and genetic disorders. Each entry has a summary of related medical articles. It is meant for health care professionals and researchers. OMIM is maintained by Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. 
  • Orphanet is a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Access to this database is free of charge.
  • PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Histidinemia. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.

References

  1. Histidinemia. Genetics Home Reference (GHR). August 2009; https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/histidinemia.
  2. Levy HL. Histidinemia. National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD). 2015; https://rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/histidinemia/.
  3. Brosco J. Histidinemia. Orphanet. January 2015; https://www.orpha.net/consor/cgi-bin/OC_Exp.php?lng=en&Expert=2157.