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Disease Profile

Femur bifid with monodactylous ectrodactyly

Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.


US Estimated

Europe Estimated

Age of onset





Autosomal dominant A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease.


Autosomal recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype.


dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.


recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder.


Mitochondrial or multigenic Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.

Multigenic or multifactor Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.


Not applicable


Other names (AKA)

GWC; Gollop-Wolfgang complex


Congenital and Genetic Diseases; Musculoskeletal Diseases


The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs.

Orpha Number: 1986

A rare congenital limb malformation characterized by bifid femur, absent or hypoplastic tibia and ulna with limb shortening, oligodactyly, and ectrodactyly.

Approximately 200 cases have been reported worldwide.

Clinical description
The malformation presents with congenital aplasia/hypoplasia of the tibia, bifurcation of the distal femur, more commonly unilateral, accompanied by pre-axial oligodactyly or monodactyly of the feet. There is oligodactyly and ectrodactyly, often associated with an abnormality of the ulna. The pattern is frequently asymmetric. Occasionally other abnormalities can be present, namely congenital heart defects, cleft lip and palate and tracheo-oesophageal fistula.

The etiology remains unknown. In two Japanese patients, a duplication and a triplication of a 210 Kb chromosomal segment in 17p13.3, including BHLHA9, has been detected, and considered a susceptibility factor for the limb malformation.

Diagnostic methods
Diagnosis is based on clinical and radiological findings.

Differential diagnosis
Differential diagnoses includes hypoplastic tibiae-postaxialpolydactyly syndrome and split hand foot malformation syndromes.

Antenatal diagnosis
Prenatal diagnosis can be performed by ultrasound scans in the second trimester of pregnancy.

Genetic counseling
Whilst the pattern of inheritance is currently unknown, autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive inheritance models have been suggested.

Management and treatment
Patients should be offered orthopedic and reconstructive surgery (involving prosthetics) and regular monitoring.

Life expectancy is not reduced but, in the absence of treatment, the functional prognosis is poor.

Visit the Orphanet disease page for more resources.


This table lists symptoms that people with this disease may have. For most diseases, symptoms will vary from person to person. People with the same disease may not have all the symptoms listed. This information comes from a database called the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) . The HPO collects information on symptoms that have been described in medical resources. The HPO is updated regularly. Use the HPO ID to access more in-depth information about a symptom.

Medical Terms Other Names
Learn More:
80%-99% of people have these symptoms
Aplasia/Hypoplasia of the tibia
Absent/small shankbone
Absent/small shinbone
Absent/underdeveloped shankbone
Absent/underdeveloped shinbone

[ more ]

Bifid femur
Notched thighbone
Split thighbone

[ more ]

Cleft hand
Lobster claw hand

[ more ]

Hand monodactyly
30%-79% of people have these symptoms
Aplasia/Hypoplasia of the ulna
Absence/underdevelopment of inner forearm bone
Percent of people who have these symptoms is not available through HPO
Absent tibia
Absent shankbone
Absent shinbone

[ more ]

Aplasia of the ulna
Autosomal recessive inheritance
Foot monodactyly
Split hand
Claw hand
Claw hand deformities
Claw hands
Claw-hand deformities

[ more ]


Learn more

These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.

In-Depth Information

  • The Monarch Initiative brings together data about this condition from humans and other species to help physicians and biomedical researchers. Monarch’s tools are designed to make it easier to compare the signs and symptoms (phenotypes) of different diseases and discover common features. This initiative is a collaboration between several academic institutions across the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. Visit the website to explore the biology of this condition.
  • Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) is a catalog of human genes and genetic disorders. Each entry has a summary of related medical articles. It is meant for health care professionals and researchers. OMIM is maintained by Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. 
  • Orphanet is a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Access to this database is free of charge.
  • PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Femur bifid with monodactylous ectrodactyly. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.