Rare Dermatology News

Disease Profile

Central core disease

Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.

1-9 / 1 000 000

US Estimated

Europe Estimated

Age of onset






Autosomal dominant A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease.


Autosomal recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype.


dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.


recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder.


Mitochondrial or multigenic Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.

Multigenic or multifactor Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.


Not applicable


Other names (AKA)

CCD; CCO; Central core disease of muscle;


Congenital and Genetic Diseases; Nervous System Diseases


Central core disease (CCD) is an inherited condition that involves muscle weakness, skeletal abnormalities, and an increased chance of having a severe reaction to some anesthesia medications. Muscle weakness ranges from mild to severe and typically affects muscles in the trunk and upper legs, though muscles in the neck and face can also be affected.[1][2] Skeletal abnormalities may include curving of the spine (scoliosis), dislocation of the hip, or restricted motion in certain joints (contractures). Some individuals with CCD have an increased chance of having a severe reaction to anesthesia, called malignant hyperthermia, which may cause muscle rigidity or break-down (rhabdomyolysis), a high fever, or a rapid heart beat.[1][2] RYR1 is the only gene associated with CCD and clinical testing is available to look for disease-causing alterations in this gene known as pathogenic variants (mutations). Treatment depends on the severity of symptoms and is mainly supportive. Muscle weakness and skeletal abnormalities may benefit from physical therapy or surgery. Avoidance of inhaled anesthetics and succinylcholine can help prevent complications from malignant hyperthermia.[2]


This table lists symptoms that people with this disease may have. For most diseases, symptoms will vary from person to person. People with the same disease may not have all the symptoms listed. This information comes from a database called the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) . The HPO collects information on symptoms that have been described in medical resources. The HPO is updated regularly. Use the HPO ID to access more in-depth information about a symptom.

Medical Terms Other Names
Learn More:
30%-79% of people have these symptoms
Central core regions in muscle fibers
Congenital hip dislocation
Dislocated hip since birth
Easy fatigability
Joint laxity
Joint instability
Lax joints

[ more ]

Malignant hyperthermia
Mitral valve prolapse
Motor delay
Multiple joint contractures
Muscle stiffness
Muscular hypotonia
Low or weak muscle tone
Muscle tissue disease
Pelvic girdle muscle weakness
Pes planus
Flat feet
Flat foot

[ more ]

Talipes equinovarus
Club feet
Club foot

[ more ]

Type 1 muscle fiber predominance
5%-29% of people have these symptoms
Bulbar signs
Nemaline bodies
Eye muscle paralysis
1%-4% of people have these symptoms
Elevated serum creatine kinase
Elevated blood creatine phosphokinase
Elevated circulating creatine phosphokinase
Elevated creatine kinase
Elevated serum CPK
Elevated serum creatine phosphokinase
High serum creatine kinase
Increased CPK
Increased creatine kinase
Increased creatine phosphokinase
Increased serum CK
Increased serum creatine kinase
Increased serum creatine phosphokinase

[ more ]

Fetal akinesia sequence
Neonatal respiratory distress
Infantile respiratory distress
Newborn respiratory distress
Respiratory distress, neonatal

[ more ]

Respiratory insufficiency due to muscle weakness
Decreased lung function due to weak breathing muscles
Percent of people who have these symptoms is not available through HPO
Autosomal dominant inheritance
Autosomal recessive inheritance
Flexion contracture
Flexed joint that cannot be straightened
Generalized muscle weakness
Infantile onset
Onset in first year of life
Onset in infancy

[ more ]

Neonatal hypotonia
Low muscle tone, in neonatal onset
Skeletal muscle atrophy
Muscle degeneration
Muscle wasting

[ more ]

Slow progression
Signs and symptoms worsen slowly with time


Because the symptoms of central core disease can be quite variable, a physical examination alone is often not enough to establish a diagnosis. A combination of the following examinations and testings can diagnosis this condition: a physical examination that confirms muscle weakness, a muscle biopsy that reveals a characteristic appearance of the muscle cells, and/or genetic testing that identifies a mutation in the RYR1.[2]

Testing Resources

  • The Genetic Testing Registry (GTR) provides information about the genetic tests for this condition. The intended audience for the GTR is health care providers and researchers. Patients and consumers with specific questions about a genetic test should contact a health care provider or a genetics professional.
  • Orphanet lists international laboratories offering diagnostic testing for this condition.


    Treatments for central core disease (CCD) depend on the symptoms experienced by each affected individual. When someone is first diagnosed with this condition, a physical examination is done to assess the extent and severity of muscle weakness, and physical therapy and occupational therapy assessments to determine which therapies might be most beneficial. Physical therapy, such as stretching or low-impact exercises, may help improve weakness. Some skeletal abnormalities can be addressed with physical therapy, though others may require surgery. As the muscle weakness and scoliosis associated with CCD can affect breathing, individuals diagnosed with this condition may benefit from pulmonary function tests. If breathing is significantly affected, breathing exercises or other breathing support treatments may be recommended.[2] Another treatment option may be a medication called salbutamol, which was found to significantly increased muscle strength and stamina in six of eight children with CCD.[3]

    Management Guidelines

    • Orphanet Emergency Guidelines is an article which is expert-authored and peer-reviewed that is intended to guide health care professionals in emergency situations involving this condition.
    • Project OrphanAnesthesia is a project whose aim is to create peer-reviewed, readily accessible guidelines for patients with rare diseases and for the anesthesiologists caring for them. The project is a collaborative effort of the German Society of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Orphanet, the European Society of Pediatric Anesthesia, anesthetists and rare disease experts with the aim to contribute to patient safety.


      Support and advocacy groups can help you connect with other patients and families, and they can provide valuable services. Many develop patient-centered information and are the driving force behind research for better treatments and possible cures. They can direct you to research, resources, and services. Many organizations also have experts who serve as medical advisors or provide lists of doctors/clinics. Visit the group’s website or contact them to learn about the services they offer. Inclusion on this list is not an endorsement by GARD.

      Organizations Supporting this Disease

        Organizations Providing General Support

          Learn more

          These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.

          Where to Start

            In-Depth Information

            • GeneReviews provides current, expert-authored, peer-reviewed, full-text articles describing the application of genetic testing to the diagnosis, management, and genetic counseling of patients with specific inherited conditions.
            • Medscape Reference provides information on this topic. You may need to register to view the medical textbook, but registration is free.
            • The Monarch Initiative brings together data about this condition from humans and other species to help physicians and biomedical researchers. Monarch’s tools are designed to make it easier to compare the signs and symptoms (phenotypes) of different diseases and discover common features. This initiative is a collaboration between several academic institutions across the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. Visit the website to explore the biology of this condition.
            • Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) is a catalog of human genes and genetic disorders. Each entry has a summary of related medical articles. It is meant for health care professionals and researchers. OMIM is maintained by Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. 
            • Orphanet is a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Access to this database is free of charge.
            • PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Central core disease. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.


              1. Central core disease. Genetics Home Reference. October, 2007; https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/central-core-disease.
              2. Malicdan MCV, Nishino I. Central Core Disease. GeneReviews. December 4, 2014; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1391/.
              3. Messina S, Hartley L, Main M, Kinali M, Jungbluth H, Muntoni F, Mercuri E. Pilot trial of salbutamol in central core and multi-minicore diseases. Neuropediatrics. 2004; 35:262-266. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15534757. Accessed 9/8/2011.
              4. Lamont PJ et al.,. Fifty year follow-up of a patient with central core disease shows slow but definite progression. Neuromuscul Disord. 1998; 8(6):385. Accessed 2/12/2015.

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